ALEC NEWMAN'S DICTIONARY OF POETIC FORMS

Acrostic:

Alcaics: Quatrain: 11 syllables, 11 syllables, 9 syllables, 10 syllables. Dactylic.

Alexandrine: Iambic Hexameter.

Alliterative Metre: 'Bring me my bow of burning gold' ( aa / ab ). The first three stressed syllables are alliterated, the fourth stress isn't. There is an implied cesura between the first two stresses and the second two.

Other alliterative patterns include ab/ ab and ab / ba Cynghanedd would also seem to be employed.

Ballad metre: Quatrain with the rhyme scheme: abcb. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses.

Ballade: Rhyme scheme: ababbcbc, with an envoi: bcbc. This form has a refrain repeated in the last line of each stanza.

Blank verse: Unrhymed iambic petametre.

Burns stanza: Rhyme scheme: aaabab. 4 stresses, 4 stresses, 4 stresses. 2 stresses, 4 stresses, 2 stresses.

Chant royal: Rhyme scheme: ababccddede, with an envoi: ddede. Last line of the stanza is repeated as a refrain.

Clerihew: common measure: Rhyme scheme: abab. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses.

Curtal sonnet: G M Hopkins shortened the sonnet to 10 and a half lines.

Cyhydedd Fer: Rhyme scheme aa…. 8 syllables a line.

Cyhydedd Naw Ban: As above, but with 9 syllables per line.

Cynghanedd Draws: Mae ynom / bawb ddymuniad. Not all of the consonants of the first hemistich are repeated in the second. This line has two primary stresses.

Cynghanedd Groes: Darn o'r haul / draw yn rhywle. All of the consonants of the first hemistich are answered in the second hemistich. This line has two primary stresses.

Cynghanedd Lusg: Yn llawen / mewn llwyn ir. The last syllable of the first hemistich rhymes with the penultimate syllable of the last hemistich. This line has two primary stresses

Cynghanedd Sain: Hen linell / bell / nad yw'n bod. The last syllable of the first hemistich is rhymed with the last syllable of the second hemistich. This rhyming word is then alliterated in the third hemistich. This line has three primary stresses.

Cywydd Deuair Hirion: Rhyme scheme: aa. 7 syllables per line,

Debidhe: Irish form where a feminine ending is rhymed with a masculine ending: …obligation/… own.

Dizain: Rhyme scheme: ababbccded. Iambic pentametre.

Englyn Cyrch: …a, …a, …b, .b.a. 7 syllables a line with the third line rhymed with an internal rhyme in the last line.

Englyn Milwr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 7 syllables per line.

Englyn Penfyr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 10 syllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables. Cynghanedd is formed across the first two lines.

Englyn Proest Cadwynog: Rhyme scheme: abab. 7 syllables per line.

Englyn Unodl Union: Rhyme scheme aaaa. 10 sllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables. Cynghanedd is formed across the first two lines.

Fourteener: Lines composed in iambic heptameter.

Free verse: Verse downloaded from the internet.

Ghazal: Arabic couplet form with rhyme scheme: aa, ba, ca, da …

haiku: five syllables, seven syllables, five syllables.

Hir: (welsh) the middle of the line rhymes with the end of the line.

In Memoriam stanza: composed in iambic tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba.

Limerick: Rhyme scheme: aabba. Composed in anaepaests. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 2 stresses, 2 stresses, 3 stresses.

Long measure: tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba or abab.

Ottava rima: Rhyme scheme abababcc. Composed in iambic pentameter.

Poulter's meter: Composed in rhyming couplets of alternating iambic hexameters and heptameters. Rhyme scheme aa, bb, cc …

rhyme royal: Rhyme scheme: ababbcc. Composed in iambic pentameter with the last line in iambic hexameter.

Rondeau: Rhyme scheme: aabbaaab R. R denotes a refrain of the first line, or a fragment from the first line.

Rondel: Rhyme scheme: abbaabababbaab. The italics denote the refrains.

roundel: Ryhme scheme: abab bab abab. The italics denote the refrain.

Sestina: The last word of each line of the first stanza is repeated in a stipulated order at the end of each line in the succeeding stanzas. There is also a three line envoi in which all of the end words must be used in the body of the text. The rhyme scheme, and the order of repetition, is as follows: ABCDEF FAEBDC CFDABE ECBFAD DEACFB BDFECA and an envoi of either BDF or ECA.

Short measure: Rhyme scheme: abcb or abab. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses.

Skeltonics: Two to three stresses a line and an irregular rhyme scheme.

Sonnet: Patrachan: octave: abbaabba. Sestet: cdecde or cdccdc

Shakespearian: ababcdcdefefgg.

Tanka: 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables.

Terza rima: Rhyme scheme: aba bcb cdc ded efe …

Triolet: Rhyme scheme: abaaabab. The refrains are denoted with italics.

Ugeined: twnety lines with mixed line lenght cynghanedd, created by Euros Bowen

ViLlanelle: The villanelle consists of five stanzas of three lines (tercets) followed by a single stanza of four lines (a quatrain) for a total of nineteen lines. It is structured by two repeating rhymes and two refrains: the first line of the first stanza serves as the last line of the second and fourth stanzas, and the third line of the first stanza serves as the last line of the third and fifth stanzas The rhyme-and-refrain pattern of the villanelle can be schematized as A1bA2 abA1 abA2 abA1 abA2 abA1A2 where letters (“a” and “b”) indicate the two rhyme sounds, upper case indicates a refrain (“A”), and superscript numerals (1 and 2) indicate Refrain 1 and Refrain 2.

METRICAL FEET

Iamb X/ X= unstressed and / = stressed syllables

Trochee /X

Spondee Pyrrhic XX Anapaest XX/ Dactyl /XX Amphibrach X/X Amphimacer /X/ Bacchius X

Antibacchius X Molossus /

Tribrach XXX

Tetrabrach XXXX

Dispondee

Diamb X/X/

Ditrochee /X/X

Ionic minor XX Ionic major XX

Antispast XX Choriamb /XX/ First Paeon /XXX Second Paeon X/XX Third Paeon XX/X Fourth Paeon XXX/ First epitrite X/

Second epitrite /X Third epitrite X/

Fourth epitrite /X Scansion Systems – macron U breve / ictus Sieversian: / a stressed syllable or resolved sequence (a resolved sequence is a strong stress on a short vowel followed by an unstressed syllable and scans as one long syllable) \ a secondary stressed syllable x an unstressed syllable ( x ) one extra syllable of expansion allowed. [ xx ] one or two syllables of anacrusis allowed ( xxx ) one or more syllables of expansion allowed Possible types of hemistich: Type Anacrusis First Foot Second Foot A [ xx ] /x ( xxx ) /x A3 xx ( xxx ) /x B x (xxx) / x ( x ) / C x (xxx) / / x D [ xx ] / ( x ) / \ x D4 [ xx ] / ( x ) / x ( x ) \ E / \ xx /