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-====== ALEC NEWMAN'​S ​DICIONARY ​OF POETIC FORMS ======+====== ALEC NEWMAN'​S ​DICTIONARY ​OF POETIC FORMS ======
  
 Acrostic: Acrostic:
 +
 Alcaics: Quatrain: 11 syllables, 11 syllables, 9 syllables, 10 syllables. Dactylic. Alcaics: Quatrain: 11 syllables, 11 syllables, 9 syllables, 10 syllables. Dactylic.
 +
 Alexandrine:​ Iambic Hexameter. Alexandrine:​ Iambic Hexameter.
 +
 Alliterative Metre: 'Bring me my bow of burning gold' ( aa / ab ). The first three stressed syllables Alliterative Metre: 'Bring me my bow of burning gold' ( aa / ab ). The first three stressed syllables
 are alliterated,​ the fourth stress isn't. There is an implied cesura between the are alliterated,​ the fourth stress isn't. There is an implied cesura between the
 first two stresses and the second two. first two stresses and the second two.
 +
 Other alliterative patterns include ab/ ab and ab / ba Other alliterative patterns include ab/ ab and ab / ba
 Cynghanedd would also seem to be employed. Cynghanedd would also seem to be employed.
 +
 Ballad metre: Quatrain with the rhyme scheme: abcb. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 Ballad metre: Quatrain with the rhyme scheme: abcb. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3
 stresses. stresses.
 +
 Ballade: Rhyme scheme: ababbcbc, with an envoi: bcbc. This form has a refrain repeated in the Ballade: Rhyme scheme: ababbcbc, with an envoi: bcbc. This form has a refrain repeated in the
 last line of each stanza. last line of each stanza.
 +
 Blank verse: Unrhymed iambic petametre. Blank verse: Unrhymed iambic petametre.
 +
 Burns stanza: Rhyme scheme: aaabab. 4 stresses, 4 stresses, 4 stresses. 2 stresses, 4 stresses, Burns stanza: Rhyme scheme: aaabab. 4 stresses, 4 stresses, 4 stresses. 2 stresses, 4 stresses,
 2 stresses. 2 stresses.
 +
 Chant royal: Rhyme scheme: ababccddede,​ with an envoi: ddede. Last line of the stanza is Chant royal: Rhyme scheme: ababccddede,​ with an envoi: ddede. Last line of the stanza is
 repeated as a refrain. repeated as a refrain.
 +
 Clerihew: Clerihew:
 common measure: Rhyme scheme: abab. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses. common measure: Rhyme scheme: abab. 4 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses.
 +
 Curtal sonnet: G M Hopkins shortened the sonnet to 10 and a half lines. Curtal sonnet: G M Hopkins shortened the sonnet to 10 and a half lines.
 +
 Cyhydedd Fer: Rhyme scheme aa.... 8 syllables a line. Cyhydedd Fer: Rhyme scheme aa.... 8 syllables a line.
 +
 Cyhydedd Naw Ban: As above, but with 9 syllables per line. Cyhydedd Naw Ban: As above, but with 9 syllables per line.
 +
 Cynghanedd Draws: Mae ynom / bawb ddymuniad. Not all of the consonants of the first Cynghanedd Draws: Mae ynom / bawb ddymuniad. Not all of the consonants of the first
 hemistich are repeated in the second. This line has two primary stresses. hemistich are repeated in the second. This line has two primary stresses.
 +
 Cynghanedd Groes: Darn o'r haul / draw yn rhywle. All of the consonants of the first hemistich Cynghanedd Groes: Darn o'r haul / draw yn rhywle. All of the consonants of the first hemistich
 are answered in the second hemistich. This line has two primary stresses. are answered in the second hemistich. This line has two primary stresses.
 +
 Cynghanedd Lusg: Yn llawen / mewn llwyn ir. The last syllable of the first hemistich rhymes Cynghanedd Lusg: Yn llawen / mewn llwyn ir. The last syllable of the first hemistich rhymes
 with the penultimate syllable of the last hemistich. This line has two with the penultimate syllable of the last hemistich. This line has two
 primary stresses primary stresses
 +
 Cynghanedd Sain: Hen linell / bell / nad yw'n bod. The last syllable of the first hemistich is Cynghanedd Sain: Hen linell / bell / nad yw'n bod. The last syllable of the first hemistich is
 rhymed with the last syllable of the second hemistich. This rhyming word is rhymed with the last syllable of the second hemistich. This rhyming word is
 then alliterated in the third hemistich. This line has three primary stresses. then alliterated in the third hemistich. This line has three primary stresses.
 +
 Cywydd Deuair Hirion: Rhyme scheme: aa. 7 syllables per line, Cywydd Deuair Hirion: Rhyme scheme: aa. 7 syllables per line,
 +
 Debidhe: Irish form where a feminine ending is rhymed with a masculine ending: Debidhe: Irish form where a feminine ending is rhymed with a masculine ending:
 ...obligation/​... own. ...obligation/​... own.
 +
 Dizain: Rhyme scheme: ababbccded. Iambic pentametre. Dizain: Rhyme scheme: ababbccded. Iambic pentametre.
 +
 Englyn Cyrch: ...a, ...a, ...b, .b.a. 7 syllables a line with the third line rhymed with an internal Englyn Cyrch: ...a, ...a, ...b, .b.a. 7 syllables a line with the third line rhymed with an internal
 rhyme in the last line. rhyme in the last line.
 +
 Englyn Milwr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 7 syllables per line. Englyn Milwr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 7 syllables per line.
 +
 Englyn Penfyr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 10 syllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables. Cynghanedd is Englyn Penfyr: Rhyme scheme aaa. 10 syllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables. Cynghanedd is
 formed across the first two lines. formed across the first two lines.
 +
 Englyn Proest Cadwynog: Rhyme scheme: abab. 7 syllables per line. Englyn Proest Cadwynog: Rhyme scheme: abab. 7 syllables per line.
 +
 Englyn Unodl Union: Rhyme scheme aaaa. 10 sllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables. Englyn Unodl Union: Rhyme scheme aaaa. 10 sllables, 6 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables.
 Cynghanedd is formed across the first two lines. Cynghanedd is formed across the first two lines.
 +
 Fourteener: Lines composed in iambic heptameter. Fourteener: Lines composed in iambic heptameter.
 +
 Free verse: Verse downloaded from the internet. Free verse: Verse downloaded from the internet.
-Ghazal: Arabic couplet form with rhyme scheme: aa, ba, ca, da ...+ 
 +Ghazal: Arabic couplet form with rhyme scheme: aa, ba, ca, da … 
 haiku: five syllables, seven syllables, five syllables. haiku: five syllables, seven syllables, five syllables.
 +
 Hir: (welsh) the middle of the line rhymes with the end of the line. Hir: (welsh) the middle of the line rhymes with the end of the line.
 +
 In Memoriam stanza: composed in iambic tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba. In Memoriam stanza: composed in iambic tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba.
 +
 Limerick: Rhyme scheme: aabba. Composed in anaepaests. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 2 stresses, Limerick: Rhyme scheme: aabba. Composed in anaepaests. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 2 stresses,
 2 stresses, 3 stresses. 2 stresses, 3 stresses.
 +
 Long measure: tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba or abab. Long measure: tetrameter with the rhyme scheme: abba or abab.
 +
 +Niner: Nice lines of Nine for Mendoza
 +
 Ottava rima: Rhyme scheme abababcc. Composed in iambic pentameter. Ottava rima: Rhyme scheme abababcc. Composed in iambic pentameter.
 +
 Poulter'​s meter: Composed in rhyming couplets of alternating iambic hexameters and heptameters. Poulter'​s meter: Composed in rhyming couplets of alternating iambic hexameters and heptameters.
-Rhyme scheme aa, bb, cc ...+Rhyme scheme aa, bb, cc … 
 rhyme royal: Rhyme scheme: ababbcc. Composed in iambic pentameter with the last line in rhyme royal: Rhyme scheme: ababbcc. Composed in iambic pentameter with the last line in
 iambic hexameter. iambic hexameter.
 +
 Rondeau: Rhyme scheme: aabbaaab R. R denotes a refrain of the first line, or a fragment from the Rondeau: Rhyme scheme: aabbaaab R. R denotes a refrain of the first line, or a fragment from the
 first line. first line.
 +
 Rondel: Rhyme scheme: abbaabababbaab. The italics denote the refrains. Rondel: Rhyme scheme: abbaabababbaab. The italics denote the refrains.
 +
 roundel: Ryhme scheme: abab bab abab. The italics denote the refrain. roundel: Ryhme scheme: abab bab abab. The italics denote the refrain.
 +
 Sestina: The last word of each line of the first stanza is repeated in a stipulated order at the end of Sestina: The last word of each line of the first stanza is repeated in a stipulated order at the end of
 each line in the succeeding stanzas. There is also a three line envoi in which all of the end each line in the succeeding stanzas. There is also a three line envoi in which all of the end
Line 68: Line 110:
 repetition, is as follows: ABCDEF FAEBDC CFDABE ECBFAD DEACFB BDFECA repetition, is as follows: ABCDEF FAEBDC CFDABE ECBFAD DEACFB BDFECA
 and an envoi of either BDF or ECA. and an envoi of either BDF or ECA.
 +
 Short measure: Rhyme scheme: abcb or abab. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses. Short measure: Rhyme scheme: abcb or abab. 3 stresses, 3 stresses, 4 stresses, 3 stresses.
 +
 Skeltonics: Two to three stresses a line and an irregular rhyme scheme. Skeltonics: Two to three stresses a line and an irregular rhyme scheme.
 +
 Sonnet: Patrachan: octave: abbaabba. Sestet: cdecde or cdccdc Sonnet: Patrachan: octave: abbaabba. Sestet: cdecde or cdccdc
 +
 Shakespearian:​ ababcdcdefefgg. Shakespearian:​ ababcdcdefefgg.
 +
 Tanka: 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables. Tanka: 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables.
-Terza rima: Rhyme scheme: aba bcb cdc ded efe ...+ 
 +Terza rima: Rhyme scheme: aba bcb cdc ded efe … 
 Triolet: Rhyme scheme: abaaabab. The refrains are denoted with italics. Triolet: Rhyme scheme: abaaabab. The refrains are denoted with italics.
-Vilanelle:+ 
 +Ugeinedtwnety lines with mixed line lenght cynghanedd, created by Euros Bowen 
 + 
 +ViLlanelle: The villanelle consists of five stanzas of three lines (tercets) followed by a single stanza of four lines (a quatrain) for a total of nineteen lines. It is structured by two repeating rhymes and two refrains: the first line of the first stanza serves as the last line of the second and fourth stanzas, and the third line of the first stanza serves as the last line of the third and fifth stanzas The rhyme-and-refrain pattern of the villanelle can be schematized as A1bA2 abA1 abA2 abA1 abA2 abA1A2 where letters ("​a"​ and "​b"​) indicate the two rhyme sounds, upper case indicates a refrain ("​A"​),​ and superscript numerals (1 and 2) indicate Refrain 1 and Refrain 2. 
 METRICAL FEET METRICAL FEET
 +
 Iamb X/ X= unstressed and / = stressed syllables Iamb X/ X= unstressed and / = stressed syllables
 +
 Trochee /X Trochee /X
 +
 Spondee // Spondee //
 +
 Pyrrhic XX Pyrrhic XX
 +
 Anapaest XX/ Anapaest XX/
 +
 Dactyl /XX Dactyl /XX
 +
 Amphibrach X/X Amphibrach X/X
 +
 Amphimacer /X/ Amphimacer /X/
 +
 Bacchius X// Bacchius X//
 +
 Antibacchius //X Antibacchius //X
 +
 Molossus /// Molossus ///
 +
 Tribrach XXX Tribrach XXX
 +
 Tetrabrach XXXX Tetrabrach XXXX
 +
 Dispondee //// Dispondee ////
 +
 Diamb X/X/ Diamb X/X/
 +
 Ditrochee /X/X Ditrochee /X/X
 +
 Ionic minor XX// Ionic minor XX//
 +
 Ionic major //XX Ionic major //XX
 +
 Antispast X//X Antispast X//X
 +
 Choriamb /XX/ Choriamb /XX/
 +
 First Paeon /XXX First Paeon /XXX
 +
 Second Paeon X/XX Second Paeon X/XX
 +
 Third Paeon XX/X Third Paeon XX/X
 +
 Fourth Paeon XXX/ Fourth Paeon XXX/
 +
 First epitrite X/// First epitrite X///
 +
 Second epitrite /X// Second epitrite /X//
 +
 Third epitrite //X/ Third epitrite //X/
 +
 Fourth epitrite ///X Fourth epitrite ///X
 +
 Scansion Systems Scansion Systems
 +
 -- macron -- macron
 +
 U breve U breve
 +
 / ictus / ictus
 +
 Sieversian: / a stressed syllable or resolved sequence (a resolved sequence is a strong stress Sieversian: / a stressed syllable or resolved sequence (a resolved sequence is a strong stress
 on a short vowel followed by an unstressed syllable and scans as one long syllable) on a short vowel followed by an unstressed syllable and scans as one long syllable)
 +
 \ a secondary stressed syllable \ a secondary stressed syllable
 +
 x an unstressed syllable x an unstressed syllable
 +
 ( x ) one extra syllable of expansion allowed. ( x ) one extra syllable of expansion allowed.
 +
 [ xx ] one or two syllables of anacrusis allowed [ xx ] one or two syllables of anacrusis allowed
 +
 ( xxx ) one or more syllables of expansion allowed ( xxx ) one or more syllables of expansion allowed
 +
 Possible types of hemistich: Possible types of hemistich:
 +
 Type Anacrusis First Foot Second Foot Type Anacrusis First Foot Second Foot
 +
 A [ xx ] /x ( xxx ) /x A [ xx ] /x ( xxx ) /x
 +
 A3 xx ( xxx ) /x A3 xx ( xxx ) /x
 +
 B x (xxx) / x ( x ) / B x (xxx) / x ( x ) /
 +
 C x (xxx) / / x C x (xxx) / / x
 +
 D [ xx ] / ( x ) / \ x D [ xx ] / ( x ) / \ x
 +
 D4 [ xx ] / ( x ) / x ( x ) \ D4 [ xx ] / ( x ) / x ( x ) \
 +
 E / \ xx / E / \ xx /